Why the spring peak in Greenland field activities?

Field activities in Greenland are often confined to spring and summer. In autumn and winter, low temperatures, snowfall, the lack of sunlight, and more frequent storms do not provide optimal working conditions. Besides, the most interesting processes to study primarily occur in the warm season, such as the melting of the glaciers and ice sheet.

There are two distinct peaks in Greenland field activities. The first is in spring, for those people who need to get out there when things are still frozen, but when daylight and weather conditions are workable. The second peak is in mid-to-late summer, when weather conditions are best, melting is strongest, and the ice sheet margin and tundra is snow-free and more accessible. In between there is a potentially less pleasant period with often soggy conditions, and billions of mosquitoes. With the summer peak getting underway, let’s see what the spring rush is all about.

Installing instruments before the warm season

A good reason to get over to Greenland in spring is when you want your instruments in place to monitor what’s happening during the “warm” season, when plants grow, animals reproduce, and glaciers melt. Or, in the case of the University of Fribourg, when meltwater is generated at the top of the snowpack on the ice sheet. The Swiss scientists have now returned several times to the same sites in the lower accumulation area. They study how much meltwater gets refrozen in the cold snow underneath the surface, how much runs off into the ocean, and how this will change in time. Greenland Guidance provided weather forecasts for them to optimize their activities and prepare camp for storms, if needed. This spring their field team had two weeks on ice with surprisingly good weather conditions.

The University of Liverpool placing a weather station next to a fast-moving glacier (photo: James Lea).

Another team out there this spring was the University of Liverpool, who where installing GG-built instruments at a fast-flowing glacier in southwest Greenland. They are investigating a glacier that has retreated a lot in the past few years. When such a glacier experiences melt, an already complex system becomes even more complicated, for instance because of large pulses of meltwater originating from ice-dammed lakes along the sides. Or from rain events. With their instruments up and running in mid-May, they timed it well.

In May and June, the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) visited GC-Net weather stations high on the ice sheet. This is part of their annual maintenance efforts that take place in spring to make sure all systems are up and running during summer. We were invited along to help out. Each station takes several hours to service, but the more people can help, the faster the Twin Otter airplane can return to town. The machine experienced engine trouble, but luckily this happened at the airport before departure, and not on or over the ice sheet.

Preparing for takeoff to do maintenance at GEUS GC-Net sites (photo: Ken Mankoff).

Snow conditions

A second reason for the GC-Net maintenance to take place when it is a bit colder has to do with snow conditions. The scientists need to dig deep snow pits to asses the mass of the snow that fell since the last site visit, and this is done best before seasonal melting happens.

For others a cold snow layer means increased safety. Ski traversers crossing the ice sheet have to pass crevasse fields, and this is done much more safely if there is a solid snow bridge on top, deposited during winter. When snow gets wet because of melting, such bridges get weaker, and falling through them into a deep crevasse becomes a serious threat. That’s why the wind-powered kite-ski traverse team led by Bernice Notenboom did their expedition before the melt season, in May. They traveled an astonishing distance of nearly 2000 km from ice sheet base Dye-2 to the northwestern town of Qaanaaq. During their expedition they were confronted with several storms that we warned them about via satellite transmission.

The Winds of Change kite-ski camp

Preparations for summer

Often spring activities are mere preparations for summer expeditions. Take for instance the greenhouse in Narsaq in south Greenland. In order for charitable organization Greenland Trees to be able to plant trees along south Greenland fjords at the end of summer, their new greenhouse had to be prepared for growing seeds and cuttings in April and May. It took a lot of effort, but is was truly nice to notice how happy locals are with the project, and how eager they are to collaborate – including schools.

The Greenland Trees greenhouse in Narsaq.

In terms of volume, most of our clients and collaborators are scientists or camera crews, asking where to rent a boat, how to get permits, which locals to interview, and how to get to a remote site. But we also provided support to Swedish company SKB, who have been running and funding science projects in the Kangerlussuaq region over the past 15 years. In preparation of a groundwater sampling campaign to occur at their unique bedrock borehole in late summer, we went ahead and inspected the state of their equipment, inventoried their storage, and downloaded data collected by sensors deep underground.

The SKB bedrock borehole at the ice sheet margin.

With SKB discontinuing their Greenland science projects as of 2022, Greenland Guidance was selected to take over their surface hydrology project situated in the Two Boat Lake catchment. This is an exciting opportunity, and we welcome suggestions for scientific collaboration by anyone who reads this. More about the TBL project in an upcoming blog post!

Two Boat Lake with the ice sheet in the background.

Busy times

For Greenland Guidance, spring is the busiest time of year. This is when we support field parties remotely, take part in fieldwork ourselves, prepare for fieldwork in summer, and custom-build instruments for summer deployment. Nowadays we are also building and refurbishing instruments for use in the Himalayas for Utrecht University and the Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee. And we’ve expanded our area of expertise by now also focussing on ocean sciences through collaboration with MetOcean in Canada, and our new instrument platform Polar Monitoring.

Climate science enabled by Forloh

The glaciers in south Greenland are the canaries in the coal mine. They are located in the warmest part of Greenland. As the climate warms, glaciers further north will experience similar conditions in the future. So to learn about the future fate of the Greenland ice sheet, we must study how south Greenland glaciers fare in present-day climate conditions. For this reason we installed 3 draw wire ablation trackers (DWIATs) in south Greenland, and more instruments will follow. An important difference with most other science projects is that this project got funded by a pioneering, US-based company named Forloh.

Forloh site 1 as seen from above. The DWIAT instrument is located between helicopter and moulin (meltwater drainage hole).

For Greenland Guidance it all started when we were approached by Greenland logistics guru Kathy Young who was in touch with a company eager to contribute to climate science. A company appropriately selling warm outdoor clothing. Forloh was seeking to sponsor climate science in a cost-effective manner. With Greenland Guidance’s non-profit approach to science, a match was soon in the making.

Our missions with the instruments in south Greenland is not only that the observational data are shared freely with researchers across the globe, but also that the measurement locations are optimal for scientists. For this reason we asked the research community where they could see most value in having DWIATs monitor ice melt and motion. After this we decided on 3 sites requiring only short helicopter flights in south Greenland.

Winter temperatures – an example of Forloh scientific data displayed in the GG data portal. DWIATs also measure surface melt, latitude, longitude, altitude along with several system-diagnostics parameters. Note how DWIAT 1 got covered by winter snow accumulation judging from a reduced temperature variability on the right-hand side of the graph. But satellite transmissions keep coming in.

One monitoring site is right next to a moulin (meltwater drainage hole) on the main ice sheet. The second instrument is on the large, fast-flowing glacier named Eqalorutsit Kangilliit Sermiat (often called Qajuuttap Sermia) which is receiving increasing amounts of scientific attention these days. The third is on Nordbo glacier (Nordbogletsjer), a historic site where ice melt was also measured over 4 decades ago, providing an excellent opportunity to study the impacts of climate change since then.

Kathy Young and Steve Munsell, GG support crew along with Armin Dachauer, on Eqalorutsit Kangilliit Sermiat (also called Qajuuttap glacier) after installing a DWIAT.

Our helicopter charter took place on a Thursday in August. We were spared any weather delays, which are not uncommon when flying in Greenland. Our first site took some scouting as we had about 20 moulin candidate sites selected from satellite imagery. The second and third site were know before arrival, chosen to avoid crevasses and to match the historic measurement location, respectively. Instrument assembly/testing and drilling the draw wire into the glacier took 30-45 minutes per site. Even though the drilling at these wet sites proved difficult, we managed to stay on schedule, leaving some time for collecting footage at the spectacular moulin site.

We very much invite other scientists to collaborate scientifically or logistically in this project. Please do get in touch if you’re active in the region and have specific data needs.

The Forloh study area in south Greenland in red. The blue area contains GEUS PROMICE instrumentation. The red area is where Greenland Trees is active. Eqalorutsit Kangilliit Sermiat is the large glacier in the middle.

Sky Detectives – a BEA documentary featuring Greenland Guidance

Recently the "Sky Detectives" documentary aired on French television showcasing the high level of expertise by the French bureau for investigating civil aviation safety, the BEA. Central to the storyline is a project the BEA coordinated in Greenland, in which Greenland Guidance played its part.

On 30 September 2017 a large Airbus A380 airplane lost parts of its number 4 engine, which were scattered over the Greenland ice sheet. Luckily nobody got hurt. An investigation into the cause of the accident was started immediately, but the critical engine piece needed for the investigation, the fan hub, was nowhere to be found in the area searched by helicopters. A new expedition could not be launched until the next spring due to the onset of cold and dark Greenland winter. So in spring 2018 an airborne radar team and a ground radar team combed the 15 km2 search area to find … nothing.

Director Louis-Pascal Couvelaire interviewing GEUS researcher Liam Colgan for “Sky Detectives”.

The search for the (now two-part) fan hub proved extremely difficult because the heavy titanium had impacted into the snow surface. It got covered by increasing amounts of winter snow as time progressed, rendering visual detection impossible. Also the radar systems initially proved impractical as subsurface ice layers, of which there are many in this part of Greenland, could be mistaken for engine pieces.

Having improved their processing techniques of the airborne radar data, by 2019 Onera, the French aerospace lab, had identified a few potential targets for the ground team to inspect. And shortly after, on the last day of an expedition suffering from several storm delays, a team led by researcher Ken Mankoff of the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) detected a metal object at 3-4 meters below the surface. Right between two large, potentially dangerous, snow-covered crevasses.

Dirk van As on behalf of Greenland Guidance and GEUS in “Sky Detectives”.

The final expedition to the ice sheet took place in June 2019. A team of 5 including 3 Greenland Guidance mountaineers flew to the dig site armed with shovels and lots of safety equipment. The much desired fan hub fragment was extracted on 30 June.

Central to the investigation was the BEA, the French bureau for investigating civil aviation safety. They got all partners together and working towards retrieving the missing fan hub pieces. Recently, Elephant Productions finished a documentary on the BEA in which the Greenland project gets ample attention. The documentary was made for TV channel France 5, and its French title is Les détectives du ciel. It’s a 87 minute documentary that features Greenland Guidance quite prominently!

A shorter, English version called “Sky Detectives” will be broadcasted internationally. Keep an eye on our @GreenlandGdnc Twitter feed to find out where you can see it.

“Under Ice”, a documentary focussing on the final fan hub recovery expedition, by Arnar Ingi Gunnarsson / Gale Force North.

Revisiting ice monitoring equipment along the K-transect

Last summer, Greenland Guidance was again invited to assist with instrument maintenance on the western slope of the Greenland ice sheet. Here, along the iconic K-transect, Danish and Dutch scientist have been using automated measurement systems to monitor climate variables and surface ice melt for decades. As these weather stations, ice ablation trackers and other scientific measurement systems are exposed to harsh weather such as low temperatures, high wind speeds and countless thaw/freeze cycles, they need to be looked after once a year.

The PROMICE weather station at GEUS monitoring site KAN_L.

As in previous years, the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), the Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht (IMAU) and Greenland Guidance joined forces to visit all 10 measurement sites. Unlike the year before, the weather was reasonably well behaved; clouds and winds did not interfere too much with helicopter operations. In the higher ranges of our work area though we encountered a thick layer of saturated snow. Uncommonly warm air masses were over the ice sheet causing a serious melt event, severely complicating moving about in the soft, wet snow.

A draw wire ice ablation tracker one year after deployment.

Most equipment was found in good working order, requiring between 15 minutes and 3 hours of ground time per measurement site. The good news for Greenland Guidance was that all 4 custom-built draw wire ice ablation trackers (DWIATs) were fully functional and transmitting ice melt and motion data home.

A moulin fountain, spraying ice sheet meltwater 10 m up into the air.

One of the highlights of the 5-day fieldwork campaign was the sighting of what is best described as a “moulin fountain”. This rarely seen phenomenon occurs when overpressure from a large moulin (meltwater drainage hole in ice) is released via a crack in the ice to a smaller, neighbouring moulin.

Weather forecasts for Swiss scientists on the Greenland ice sheet

Greenland Guidance provided detailed weather forecasting for a Swiss science expedition on the Greenland ice sheet in spring this year. The expedition by the University of Fribourg took three weeks during which they camped in tents at 1700 m above sea level.

Weather is the largest safety hazard to expeditions at the camp’s position in southwest Greenland. Even in spring, temperatures can be dangerously low at -35 C, storms can damage tents, and whiteout conditions can make people lose camp even at 10 m distance. Also other dangers exist, yet it is unlikely to encounter dangerous crevasses or wildlife in this region; crevasses usually form where ice is thinner, closer to the ice sheet margin, whereas polar bears are spotted more frequently where their food sources live – on sea ice and at the coast.

Luckily the Swiss expedition did not encounter overly hazardous weather conditions on this occasion. Our weather forecasts helped them plan their days away from the safety of camp. Each morning at breakfast time they received an Iridium satellite text message containing up to 160 characters worth of weather information for their location and finetuned to their activities. Upon request, or if the situation required it, more weather messages would follow.

Later in the year, during an exceptional heat wave in summer, we passed over the region where the Swiss had camped. The surface of the area had turned into slush (snow saturated with meltwater), with a multitude streams where usually only snow can be seen. Good news for Swiss research on meltwater in snow. Less good news for those having to recover equipment temporarily stored on the ice sheet, now possibly stuck in refrozen meltwater…

Helicopter view of extreme melting at 1750 m elevation on the Greenland ice sheet 19 August 2021

Instrumenting Jakobshavn ice stream

Jakobshavn ice stream in Greenland is the most productive glacier in the world. In July of this year the University of Zürich (UZH) in Switzerland installed four Greenland Guidance instruments at Jakobshavn. Two glacier weather stations and two ice motion trackers measure ice movement via GPS in a detailed study of glacier dynamics.

GWS at Jakobshavn with Adrien Wehrlé (UZH)

Since their installation these instruments have been sending home the data they collected via the Iridium satellite network. The data feed into our data portal where it can be viewed and download by the university.

Because the instruments are positioned on Jakobshavn’s fast moving ice, the trackers are recording high ice velocities. And in only four months time they measured an elevation drop of about 25 m as the ice sheet flows towards the ocean.

Although winter hasn’t entirely arrived yet, the uppermost weather station at 1100 m above sea level already measured temperatures down to -35 °C. We are eager to find out whether temperatures down to -50 °C will be recorded come January, February or March. The lowest temperature measured by our instruments further south is “only” -43 °C.

High-elevation weather station maintenance on the Greenland ice sheet

This June, Greenland Guidance joined the annual maintenance of weather stations high up on the Greenland ice sheet. One major difference with instrument maintenance closer to the ice sheet margin is that equipment in the interior of the ice sheet gradually gets buried by snow. In the higher parts melt is rare, and more snow accumulates in a year than that it melts. At low elevations summer melting is abundant, ablating winter snow and several meters of the underlying ice. Ice dynamics take care of the ice mass transfer from high to low elevations – otherwise the ice sheet would get taller and steeper each year.

A downside to working in the accumulation area is that one needs to shovel snow pits of 3 m deep to retrieve buried equipment, which is particularly challenging given the thin air at 2-3 km above sea level. Also travel distances are larger between the science site and the airport where you start the day, meaning that there is a larger chance of running into adverse weather delaying the operation. On the other hand the work can be done by a fixed-wing aircraft equipped with skis, as opposed to the helicopters required to land in low-elevation, uneven, or even crevassed terrain. These airplanes don’t worry as much about weather conditions as helicopters do. And they can carry a lot of equipment.

GEUS GC-Net maintenance by Twin Otter

Not hampered by cloudy or windy conditions, we visited five measurement sites of the Greenland Climate Network (GC-Net) by Kenn Borek Air Twin Otter in six days. This year is the first year that GC-Net maintenance is done by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS). The network recently changed hands. The GC-Net got established by the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) in Boulder (US) in the 1990s and has since delivered large amounts of important climate data, contributing to many scientific studies and climate reports. Professor Konrad Steffen was a central person in all this, pushing the benefit of these measurements to climate science to great heights.

Breaking Boundaries: The Science of Our Planet

Greenland is, unfortunately, an excellent place to show the impact of climate change. Temperatures are increasing relatively rapidly, and the consequences are visible all around the ice sheet as outlet glaciers accelerate, thin and retreat. Entire ecosystems change, forcing the local community to change traditions and customs – for instance in fishing and hunting. Greenland is only the proverbial tip of the iceberg, as nature is in flux around the planet.

Last year Greenland Guidance supported a film crew shooting footage for a Netflix documentary. Breaking Boundaries: The Science of Our Planet came out recently and features very impressive footage of the Greenland ice sheet (and elsewhere), narrated by David Attenborough. Go see it if you haven’t already!

Polar Monitoring: the website for rugged instruments

Greenland Guidance entered into a collaboration with MetOcean. From now on we offer polar instruments by both companies via the common portal PolarMonitoring.eu! It’s the perfect match: MetOcean produces instruments for in the ocean, on sea ice and on land, whereas Greenland Guidance instruments are made for use on glacier ice and land. Together we have full polar coverage!

The Stokes Drifter is a compact drifting buoy that provides real-time surface current data.

Please do visit PolarMonitoring.eu, have a look around, and tell your friends and colleagues. You won’t find these instrument cheaper anywhere on the European market, especially considering the decades of experience that have gone into making them extremely durable and easy to use.

Draw wire ice ablation trackers: measuring ice melt and motion

Several months ago we installed 4 new draw wire ice ablation trackers (DWIATs) on the Greenland ice sheet on behalf of the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) and the Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research Utrecht (IMAU). The DWIATs monitor surface lowering by melting, movement as a result of ice dynamics, and temperature (inside the sensor box). Melt and motion are interlinked, as more melt leads to greater amounts of water at the glacier bed, which can result in increased glacier motion. The accuracy of localisation by GNSS satellites is accurate, allowing for the identification of periodical speed-up events. The DWIATs can be further tailored to your needs by adding additional sensors.

DWIAT installation (photo Maurice van Tiggelen)

DWIATs are very rugged, and easy to install: 1) Assemble the tripod with hex keys. 2) Mount the sensor/logger box. 3) Drill a hole max. 14 m deep. 4) Lower the draw wire into the hole. 5) Switch on the system. The units’ batteries can be shipped without dangerous goods declaration, and allow solar charging at temperatures (well) below freezing. Even without recharging during dark winter months the trackers keep functioning for several months. Both software and hardware safeties are built into Greenland Guidance instruments; double measures to prevent battery discharge beyond critically low levels.

The units recently installed in Greenland transmit their data through the Iridium satellite network that has coverage at even the northern- and southernmost latitudes. The data feed straight into the Greenland Guidance data portal where they are displayed and made available for download on a private web page. If the instrument owners approve, the data can also be graphically displayed on (but not downloaded from) the public data portal. Naturally, the DWIATs also store their measurements locally in the datalogger, ready for read-out during the next field visit in one or several years.

The DWIAT data currently featured in our public data portal belong to GEUS who monitor the Greenland ice sheet mass balance in the PROMICE project.

Borehole under ice: instrument maintenance and science support

About a decade ago a consortium of scientific and commercial organisations led by SKB in Sweden drilled a borehole in the bedrock underneath the Greenland ice sheet. Their goal: to quantify the level of interaction between the ice sheet and the groundwater below. To achieve this they drilled a 651 m long borehole angled underneath the ice sheet and equipped it with instruments. It is the first ever borehole drilled underneath an ice sheet – a truly unique project.

The location of the borehole underneath the ice sheet

Recently, SKB asked Greenland Guidance to perform instrument maintenance to ensure the continuation of the time series during a period when travel to Greenland is complicated by the COVID-19 pandemic. We gratefully accepted the task. While on site, we saw an opportunity to also shoot some drone footage.

The measurements taken in the borehole form a long, uninterrupted, and scientifically surprising time series. With the help of scientists from the University of Montana and others, SKB has written up a manuscript that is currently under review in a scientific journal. Greenland Guidance helped with the interpretation of the borehole data in terms of ice melt and movement, and is proud collaborator on the study.

Ice sheet weather station maintenance along the iconic K-transect

This year we took part in a scientific expedition to the southwestern region of the Greenland ice sheet. Representing the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), and in collaboration with the Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research (IMAU), we serviced instruments and stakes placed at 10 different sites on the ice sheet. We accessed the remote sites, up to 140 km into the ice sheet, by Air Greenland helicopter.

GAP/PROMICE weather station KAN_U in 1 m of snow

The scientific instruments by GEUS and IMAU monitor the interaction between the atmosphere and the ice sheet. In other words, they determine how much ice melts, and what is causing the melt: which combination of warm weather, solar radiation, strong winds, etc. The GEUS instruments are part of the measurement networks of the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP) and the Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE). We even installed 4 of our own draw-wire ice ablation trackers (DWIATs) – more about that in an upcoming news item.

The measurements are taken along the iconic K-transect, where ice sheet monitoring already began in 1990(!). The longer the times series, the more valuable it gets. Long climate records provide much needed context for measurements in individual years: if there is 5 m of ice melt – is it a lot (above average) or not?

Even though taking measurements over many years is crucial for climate science, it is not always an attractive option for funding agencies. So if you’d like to financially support the monitoring activities along the K-transect, it could make a large difference!

University of Lausanne sediment coring in a Greenland fjord

This september, a team of scientists from the University of Lausanne set out to collect sediment cores from the bottom of the fjord into which the glacier named Eqip Sermia calves icebergs. They contacted Greenland Guidance to help them find a boat with a winch that could lift the sediment cores from the bottom of the 200-m deep fjord to the surface. Finding a boat was easy, but finding a winch that would get the job done was more of a challenge. Especially in times of COVID-19 with life in Greenland coming to a standstill. But we managed to track one down so that the expedition could take place.

The scientists reported that “The expedition went great! We collect 35 sediment cores and things went well with the boat. It was a ton of work and a bit icy on the water by the end. It really went as good as we could have expected.”

Scientist processing a sediment core just winched onto the deck

Weather forecasting for a Swiss science expedition

This summer Greenland Guidance initiated a new service: expedition weather forecasting. Especially important for expeditions taking place in remote regions where internet access is virtually impossible. Three scientists from the University of Fribourg camped on the ice sheet while investigating meltwater in snow. We sent them detailed weather forecasts that they received on their Iridium satellite phone each morning before breakfast. We included reports on longterm stability and/or storms approaching so they could plan their activities accordingly.

Swiss scientists moving camp (Picture: Horst Machguth)

The forecasts turned out particularly relevant when the team was trying to charter a helicopter for their departure, but cloud fields were causing frequent white-out conditions during which helicopters can’t fly. At an earlier date we warned them for heavy snowfall and strong winds for their location, which is extremely rare in July.

Heavy snow accumulation during the team’s expedition recorded by a nearby PROMICE weather station. 15 cm is a lot of snow for this location in summer!

Upon safe return, we received useful feedback from the field party, allowing us to finetune our Iridium messaging forecast service. The team was pleased with the accuracy of the forecasts and reported “they were very valuable and helpful!”

Documentary on the recovery of the airplane engine part

Here’s a very nice 30-minute documentary by talented Arnar Ingi Gunnarsson on the 2019 recovery of the Airbus engine part lost over the Greenland ice sheet. Greenland Guidance was part of the challenging fan hub recovery after a long and difficult search by GEUSONERA – The French Aerospace LabAarhus University and Polar Research Equipment. Recently BEA (Bureau d’Enquêtes et d’Analyses pour la sécurité de l’aviation civile) finished their investigation looking into the causes of the accident – with some interesting findings (check out their website). Greenland Guidance thanks AirbusAir France and Engine Alliance for the excellent collaboration.

Greenland ice sheet monitoring at the K-transect

Greenland Guidance has several links to the iconic K-transect, where scientists have been measuring ice sheet surface mass balance for an astonishing 30 years. Not only are we building scientific instruments to be placed along the transect, we also have a history of performing maintenance on the existing infrastructure on behalf of the Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research in Utrecht (IMAU) and the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS).

The transect, consisting of 10 instrumented sites, is located along the western slope of the Greenland ice sheet, from the low-elevation ice sheet margin, up to an elevation of 1840 m above sea level. Both surface mass balance and weather/radiation observations are made, to be able to quantify ice loss, and to explain which processes (such as atmospheric warming) dominate this mass transfer from the ice sheet to the oceans.

The end of an era might be approaching as obtaining funding for the monitoring is becoming increasingly difficult. Even though the measurement time series is becoming more important with each added year – in Greenland there is nothing that compares. And even though many important scientific publications have relied on these data in the past.

That’s why SKB, the primary funder of GEUS’s efforts at the K-transect for the past 13 years, requested Greenland Guidance to construct a video with the aim to make more people aware of the climate and ice sheet science being done in Greenland, and to attract additional funding.

Support the monitoring efforts at the K-transect on the Greenland ice sheet

If you’d like to support climate science through this project, then do not hesitate to get in touch -> see the video for contact information. Or get in touch with us, and we’ll guide you to the appropriate people.

Support in development of drill to melt through Greenland ice sheet

Greenland Guidance provided insights in choosing the most durable parts for a drill being developed by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS). It’s tricky business as the melt-tip drill will generate high temperatures while melting its way through cold glacier ice. The drill development is for the HOTROD project headed by Liam Colgan, whereas Chris Shields is the project’s CTO. We were excited to be able to contribute to this project by choosing parts and shipping them over to GEUS. We’d love to see the drill in action in the field, either in 2020 or 2021.

Scientific publication about Airbus engine recovery from Greenland

Following our project of recovering a part from an Airbus A380 airplane engine from the Greenland ice sheet last year, we wrote a paper detailing our methods. The part was crucial for determining what went wrong on that flight over Greenland in 2017. Read the paper by Ken Mankoff and coauthors in the Journal of Glaciology here: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jog.2020.26.

Abstract:

On 30 September 2017, an Air France Airbus A380-800 suffered a failure of its fourth engine while over Greenland. This failure resulted in the loss of the engine fan hub, fan blades and surrounding structure. An initial search recovered 30 pieces of light debris, but the primary part of interest, a ~220 kg titanium fan hub, was not recovered because it had a different fall trajectory than the light debris, impacted into the ice-sheet’s snow surface, and was quickly covered by drifting snow. Here we describe the methods used for the detection of the fan hub and details of the field campaigns. The search area included two crevasse fields of at least 50 snow-covered crevasses 1 to ~30 m wide with similar snow bridge thicknesses. After 21 months and six campaigns, using airborne synthetic aperture radar, ground-penetrating radar, transient electromagnetics and an autonomous vehicle to survey the crevasse fields, the fan hub was found within ~1 m of a crevasse at a depth of ~3.3 to 4 m and was excavated with shovels, chain saws, an electric winch, sleds and a gasoline heater, by workers using fall-arrest systems.

BBC revisits Greenland glacier and sees … change

A few weeks ago Greenland Guidance helped the BBC with their operations in Greenland. They spoke with locals, interviewed climate scientists including professor Jason Box, and documented a tree planting project. Their expedition resulted in stunning footage, showcased in several news segments about Greenland and climate change. We were very happy to support this BBC operation and once again see how they operate – with a high level of professionalism.

Check out some of their Greenland footage here: Climate change: Greenland’s ice faces melting ‘death sentence’.

Newspaper NRC travels to Greenland

This July, Dutch newspaper NRC visited Greenland to document climate-related changes in the ice sheet. We provided guidance on when to go where, who to talk to, and we took care of some of the logistics required to stay among scientists and visit the ice sheet.

Science editor Marcel aan de Brugh: “To put together my trip to Greenland, I got help from Greenland Guidance. They know the research community very well, and had different options for me to join researchers in the field. They also arranged some other things, like a stay at the Kangerlussuaq International Science Support. My 7 day trip to Ilulissat and Kangerlussuaq (and from there onto the ice sheet) was impressive and unforgettable.”

Read about some of their experience here (in Dutch): https://www.nrc.nl/nieuws/2019/09/04/glijden-op-het-smeltende-ijs-van-groenland-a3972156

Airbus engine part recovered from the Greenland ice sheet

In September 2017, an Air France flight traveling west over the Greenland ice sheet experienced a failure in its 4th engine. All on board were unharmed, and the plane landed safely in Goose Bay, Canada. To figure out what exactly went wrong with the engine, a search for the missing engine parts was executed by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) supported by Greenland Guidance.

Minimal camp in a snow-covered crevassed area of the Greenland ice sheet.

The torn-away parts of the airplane engine dropped onto the ice sheet, but the heavy pieces of the fan hub – needed for the investigation – impacted into the snow surface and were lost from sight almost instantly, getting buried further with every subsequent snowfall event high on the ice sheet. The search for the largest and potentially most interesting part was difficult due to severe storms, snow-covered crevasses in the region, and the ever-present risk of polar bears passing by. Guided to a few promising sites by airplane-based radar measurements performed by ONERA (the French aerospace lab), the initial ground-based detection and therefore exact localisation was done by a radar-equipped robot (!) operated by Polar Research Equipment (PRE). The robot was crucial in regions too dangerous for people to tread unsecured, because of crevasses in excess of 10 m wide, yet invisible to the eye due to the snow cover. It wasn’t until the very end of the 3rd field campaign in spring 2019 that a metal detector custom-built by the Aarhus University HydroGeophysics Group clearly detected metal a few meters below the surface.

Video of Airbus A380 fan hub fragment recovery from the Greenland ice sheet 28-30 June 2019.

Greenland Guidance took part in the 4th recovery expedition to the ice sheet, bringing 3 experienced mountaineers from the Icelandic Association for Search and Rescue (ICE-SAR) to the scene. The expedition commenced on 28 June 2019, transporting as many as would fit in an AS350 Air Greenland helicopter (5 people) to the dig site. In spite of all safety precautions (mostly related to digging in a crevassed region), we made good progress. By the end of the second afternoon, we struck titanium. Eager to liberate the part, we kept working until after midnight. But melting the engine part loose and lifting it to the ice sheet surface proved very difficult, as we wanted to avoid contact with the yet-to-be-investigated part as much as possible. On 30 June, after an estimated 20 hours of digging, melting and lifting, the job was done and all returned safely to Narsarsuaq, 100 km southeast of where the engine part had impacted.

Find the GEUS press release here.